Surveys of external sound cards.

External sound card reviews.

An external sound card is a special device that converts sound and reproduces it on a computer; it is connected to it via a USB interface. Sometimes some additional connectors can be used for connection, when the card can perform many functions – they digitize sound



, add a reverb effect, allow the use of musical instruments, etc..

An external audio card is a reliable way to expand the capabilities of a laptop that cannot be used with a full internal audio adapter. Since the USB standard is used for connection, an external sound card is suitable for any computer, its installation takes a matter of seconds without disassembling the device case and turning off the computer.

One of the types of external cards is a wireless adapter that allows you to connect speakers – in this case, you will not need to use any wires, just a Bluetooth connection is enough.

The most important advantage of external sound cards is that when they work, they do not have any interference as a result of electromagnetic radiation inside the computer case, as is often the case with internal sound cards..

Evidence base for the effectiveness of probiotics in children.

Evidence base for the effectiveness of probiotics in children.

Probiotics are medicines and dietary supplements containing strains of representatives of normal microflora that have a beneficial effect on the body. Probiotic strains of bacteria can also be included in food [1, 2].

Probiotics: history and modernity.

For the first time L. Pasteur spoke about the functional role of bacteria in the process of digestion about 150 years ago. By studying the “diseases of wine”, he found that fermentation is the result of the activity of microorganisms and that the type of fermentation is associated with certain bacteria. This discovery allowed L. Pasteur to suggest that fermentation processes in the intestines of humans and animals are also caused by bacteria [3].

A serious study of the role of microflora in the human body began at the beginning of the last century at the Pasteur Institute and is associated with the name of the great Russian scientist I.I. Mechnikov, winner of the Nobel Prize for discoveries in the field of immunity. Mechnikov proposed the concept of the relationship between a person and his microflora and expressed the idea that it is possible to modify the intestinal microflora, replacing harmful microbes with useful ones.

He drew attention to the fact that, according to the results of the census in Europe, in Bulgaria, especially in rural areas, the number of centenarians turned out to be much higher than in other countries, and connected this with the peculiarities of the diet, namely with the use of a large amount of the traditional fermented milk product. – “Bulgarian yoghurt” (yoghurt) [1, 3]. In 1905, the Bulgarian doctor S. Grigorov isolated two bacteria that cause fermentation in “Bulgarian sour milk”: rod-shaped (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and spherical (Streptococcus thermophilus). Based on these bacteria, I.I.

Mechnikov created the first probiotic – the famous “Mechnikovsky curdled milk” – and proposed its use for medicinal purposes [4].

In the same years, the French pediatrician A. Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute, discovered a pattern: in children with diarrhea, the number of Y-shaped bacteria (called bifidobacteria) in the stool was reduced, while in healthy children the level of these bacteria was high. It has been suggested that bifidobacteria play a role in protecting against intestinal infections, and it has been proposed to use them for therapeutic purposes in diarrhea [1, 2].

A great contribution to the study of human intestinal microflora was made by the German scientist A. Nissle. It was he who proposed the term “dysbiosis”. In 1917, A. Nissle isolated and began to use for medicinal purposes a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli with antagonistic properties against pathogens of intestinal infections.

At that time, this was of particular relevance, since antibiotics had not yet been discovered [2].

In 1923, the French microbiologist A. Boulard, working in Indochina, drew attention to the fact that local residents with diarrhea successfully use the peel of a number of tropical fruits. After conducting research, he isolated the yeast of the genus sugar fungi (Saccharomyces boulardii) from the peel of the fruit. Subsequently, the lyophilisate of this yeast began to be used as an agent for the treatment of diarrhea..

Subsequently, scientific interest in human microflora and probiotics decreased for several decades due to the fact that many scientific theories regarding the microflora of the body did not find their practical confirmation, as well as due to the emergence of effective antibacterial agents for the treatment of intestinal infections. However, in the last decade, there has been a significant increase in scientific interest in probiotics [5]. This is clearly evidenced by the analysis of publications in the Medline database (Fig.): If during the period from 1954 to 1997 less than 100 works related to probiotics were published, then only in 2009 their number was 10 times more, with a significant a proportion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

According to modern data, probiotics can be divided into four groups: lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, other lactic acid bacteria (enterococci, streptococci, etc.) and various non-fermented milk microorganisms (E. coli, bacilli, yeast, etc.) [6]. Probiotics are able to have a multifactorial effect on the digestive system and the body as a whole through immunological and non-immunological mechanisms (table).

Currently, there is a serious evidence base on the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and some allergic diseases in children. In addition, there are separate studies supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in other conditions: respiratory infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, and a number of others. However, the assessment of the effectiveness of probiotic drugs is seriously difficult due to their heterogeneity and the lack of uniform research protocols.

There are significant differences in the effectiveness of individual probiotics, questions about the optimal doses of probiotics, the advisability of using their combinations remain unresolved, which requires further clinical studies..

Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in children.

To date, there is substantial evidence of the need to use probiotics in preterm infants for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. A Cochrane systematic review, presented in early 2008, showed that the administration of enteral probiotics reduced the risk of severe necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in premature infants. However, according to the review, more studies were required to determine the efficacy and safety of probiotics in very low birth weight infants (less than 1500 g) [7]. And already at the end of 2008, the results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of oral administration of a combined probiotic (B. bifidum and L. acidophilus) in very low birth weight infants for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis were presented. The study included 434 babies in 7 neonatal intensive care units in Taiwan.

The results of the study showed that in the group of children receiving the probiotic, enterocolitis was observed 3.5 times less often, and the lethality was 5 times less [8].

The scientific literature contains a large number of works devoted to the efficacy and safety of using various probiotics as a means for the treatment and prevention of acute intestinal infections. The results of the Cochrane systematic review suggest that in addition to rehydration, it is advisable to prescribe probiotics for infectious diarrhea in children and adults, since their use reduces the risk of diarrhea persistence by the third day of treatment and decreases the duration of diarrhea by 30.5 hours [9].

According to a meta-analysis of 18 studies, the use of various probiotics leads to a reduction in the duration of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age by about a day [10].

Another meta-analysis included only 9 studies on the use of probiotics of the genus Lactobacillus in children with acute infectious diarrhea. It was found that the use of such probiotics leads to a decrease in the duration of diarrhea by 0.7 days and reduces the number of bowel movements by 1.6 by the second day of treatment. The authors also emphasize the high safety of drugs based on probiotics of the genus Lactobacillus in children [11].

Thus, there is currently strong evidence of the feasibility of using probiotics as a means for the treatment of acute intestinal infections in children..

The data of the scientific literature of recent years indicate the benefits of including probiotics in the complex therapy of lesions of the digestive system associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It has been established that certain species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have an in vitro bactericidal effect against H. pylori, producing bacteriocins or organic acids, and prevent H. pylori adhesion to epithelial cells. These protective effects of probiotics have been confirmed in experimental animal studies.

The results of clinical studies in children and adults have shown that probiotics, as a rule, do not usually eradicate H. pylori, but reduce the degree of colonization in the stomach and, when used in conjunction with antibiotic therapy, can enhance the eradication of H. pylori. Probiotics, possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, can also stabilize the barrier function of the stomach and reduce the severity of inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane.

In the current concept, adopted by the second Maastricht Agreement in 2000, probiotics are considered as a potential treatment for H. pylori infection and associated gastric inflammation. In addition, probiotics are able to reduce the side effects of antibiotic therapy [12]. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study conducted several years ago in children with gastritis showed that the addition of a dairy product with L. casei to standard triple therapy significantly increased H. pylori eradication: by 27.1% for all patients included in the study (intention to treat – ITT-analysis), and by 30.3% for patients who completed the study according to the protocol (per-protocol – PP-analysis) [13].

Most scientific studies on the use of probiotics are devoted to their use for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, since one of its causes is the suppression of normal intestinal microflora, which creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, and also leads to metabolic disorders. The 2007 Cochrane systematic review focused on the use of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. The results of the review indicate that the use of probiotics is promising



for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children, but further research is needed, since it has not yet been established which probiotics are appropriate for use in children depending on age, and the optimal duration of therapy has not been determined.

The greatest evidence for the effectiveness of preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children is currently available for L. rhamnosus GG, L. sporogens and S. boulardii. It was also found that probiotics are safe for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children [14].

Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases in children.

One of the possible reasons for the increase in the number of allergic diseases may be a violation of the intestinal microflora. The 2007 Cochrane systematic review focused on the use of probiotics for the prevention of allergic diseases and food hypersensitivity in young children. Based on the results of the analysis, the preventive effect of probiotics for atopic dermatitis was established. The largest number of evidence for efficacy was for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

However, due to the significant heterogeneity of the analyzed studies, further study of this issue is required [15].

The presented meta-analysis of studies of the use of probiotics for the treatment and prevention of atopic dermatitis in children showed that out of nine randomized placebo-controlled studies with a comprehensive assessment of skin lesions using the SCORAD index, a reliable therapeutic effect of probiotics was established in seven studies. However, in two of them, the effect was observed only in children with IgE-associated atopic dermatitis, and in one, only in children with food allergies. Two of the three randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a prophylactic effect of probiotics against atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk of atopy [16].

A meta-analysis of studies in children and adults presented in 2008 showed that probiotics significantly reduce the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and reduce the need for drug therapy. However, more qualitative research on this problem is required [17].

The effectiveness of various probiotic strains in the correction of dysbiotic disorders in children.

Probiotic strains with proven efficacy to date, primarily in young children, are Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus thermophilus .

There is experimental evidence that Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 has the ability to colonize the intestines of a child from the first days of life [18]. It has also been shown that taking Bifidobacterium lactis ВB-12 significantly increases the level of IgA production in the intestine in young children [19]. And in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study in premature infants, it was found that the administration of Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 significantly increased the level of bifidoflora in feces, while reducing the level of bacteria of the intestinal family and clostridia [20].

In 2009, a laboratory comparative study of four probiotics was carried out: B. lactis ВB-12, Escherichia coli EMO, L. casei and S. boulardii. It has been shown that in vitro only B. lactis BB-12 and L. casei synthesize substances with antimicrobial properties and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The hydrophobic properties of the cell wall are inherent in B. lactis BB-12 and E. coli EMO, which is a predictor of adhesive properties and a high ability to colonize the intestine. It was also found that Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 stimulates the production of secretory IgA in laboratory animals (on a par with E. coli EMO, but to a lesser extent than S. boulardii) [21]. The scientific literature presents the results of a randomized controlled study of oral the use of a combined probiotic (B. infantis, S. thermophilus and B. lactis BB-12) in very low birth weight infants in order to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis.

The results of the study showed that in the group of children receiving the probiotic, enterocolitis developed 4.1 times less frequently, while lethal cases were observed only in the control group [22].

Breastfeeding with breast milk is the “gold standard” of nutrition for a baby in the first year of life. Natural feeding has a number of fundamental advantages over artificial feeding. In particular, human milk oligosaccharides have a pronounced prebiotic effect – they stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, which leads to inhibition of the development of pathogenic and opportunistic flora. Breast milk also contributes to the production of secretory IgA in the baby. These factors play an important role in the fact that babies receiving breast milk are less susceptible to intestinal and respiratory infections.

The most important benefit of breastfeeding is the reduced risk of developing allergies [23].

However, for various reasons, babies in the first year of life are often bottle-fed. As one of the methods, to a certain extent, reducing the disadvantages of artificial feeding, the addition of probiotics to the milk formula or the additional appointment of probiotics is considered. In the scientific literature, a number of works are presented that have shown the feasibility of using milk formulas for artificial feeding of children with the addition of Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (alone or in combination with other probiotics).

So, 15 years ago, in an evidence-based study, it was found that in newborns receiving milk formula with Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, the number of bifidobacteria corresponds to their level in breastfed children, and is significantly higher than in children receiving standard mix [24].

In children during the first months of life, who received infant formula only with B. lactis ВB-12 or additionally with S. thermophilus, higher rates of physical development were noted [25]. It has also been shown that long-term use of infant formula with B. lactis BB-12 and S. thermophilus in children during the first two years of life has a high safety profile, and in addition, significantly reduces the incidence of intestinal colic and the need for antibiotics [26].

In 1994, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, one of the first evidence-based studies on probiotics, it was shown that the use of infant formula supplemented with B. lactis BB-12 and S. thermophilus in the diet of hospitalized children aged 5 to 24 months reduces the risk of diarrhea (from 31% to 7%) and the frequency of shedding rotavirus (from 39% to 10%) [27]. Later, in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study in formula-fed children under 8 months of age (from the age of less than 2 months), it was shown that the use of infant formula with B. lactis BB-12 significantly reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and somewhat reduces its duration [28]. Also, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, the effect of the prophylactic use of milk formulas with probiotics L. reuteri and B. lactis BB-12 in healthy children aged 4 to 10 months, who were, according to the parents’ decision, artificially fed and attending kindergarten, was examined. It was found that the frequency of episodes of diarrhea and their duration, as well as the frequency of episodes of fever for various reasons were significantly lower in the groups receiving probiotics compared with the placebo group.

The same authors in a subsequent study showed a high safety profile of milk formulas with these probiotics [29, 30].

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study in formula-fed infants (from the age of less than 2 months), a significant positive effect of the appointment of a combined probiotic containing B. lactis BB-12 and L. rhamnosus GG on the incidence of respiratory infections was found. In the group of children who received milk formula with a probiotic, acute otitis media developed more than 2 times less often, antibiotics were required almost 3 times less often, and repeated respiratory infections were observed. Earlier, the same authors found that against the background of the use of this probiotic, the formation of the immune system in children is accelerated [31, 32].

There is evidence in the scientific literature that probiotics containing Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 reduce the likelihood of developing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. According to a meta-analysis of 6 evidence-based studies, the use of probiotics prevents the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in 1 in 7 children. Probiotics based on L. rhamnosus GG, S. boulardii, as well as a combined probiotic containing B. lactis BB-12 and S. thermophilus have the greatest effect [33].

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, it was shown that the use of a mixture based on whey protein hydrolysates with the addition of B. lactis BB-12 or L. rhamnosus GG in children in the first months of life leads to a significantly more pronounced effect on the SCORAD index compared to the use of a mixture based on whey protein hydrolysates without probiotics [34]. Another evidence-based study found that against the background of the use of Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 in children of the first months of life, the manifestations of atopic dermatitis decrease [35]. And in a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, it was shown that the use of a combined probiotic containing L. acidophilus and B. lactis BB-12 in children with hay fever leads to a slight decrease in the severity and duration of rhinitis symptoms, and also significantly reduces the number of eosinophils in the mucosa. nasal membrane [36].

Thus, today in the scientific literature there is the greatest amount of evidence on the effectiveness of probiotic strains B. lactis BB-12, S. thermophilus and L. rhamnosus GG in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, allergic diseases and a number of other conditions in children, especially young children..

In 2009, a new biologically active food supplement was registered on the domestic pharmaceutical market for the prevention and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in children from the first days of life – Bifiform Baby (Ferrosan A / S (Denmark), certificate of state registration Bifiform Baby No. RU .77.99.11.003.E.000122.08.10 dated 02.08.2010). The composition of 1 dose includes: Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 10 9 CFU, Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 10 8 CFU. The daily dose is 0.5 g of the drug in the form of a suspension.

An important feature of this drug is that it is approved for use in children from birth and is available in liquid form in bottles with a dispensing pipette. It should be noted that today this is the only drug approved for use in children from such an early age, with a special release form.

The available scientific data allow us to recommend the probiotic Bifiform Baby for newborns and infants, including those with a burdened perinatal history, prematurity, as well as for children who are bottle-fed, for the prevention of the development of intestinal microbiocenosis disorders and their correction [37, 38].

In 2010, a medicine for children 3–12 years old was registered in Russia containing L. rhamnosus GG 10 9 CFU, B. lactis BB-12 10 9 CFU and B vitamins, called Bifiform Kids (Ferrosan A / C (Denmark), registration certificate No. LSR-009020/10 dated 31.08.2010). The drug is available in the form of chewable tablets with an orange-raspberry flavor, especially for children.

Taking into account the available scientific data on the effectiveness of probiotic strains included in the Bifiform Kids preparation, it is indicated for children over 3 years old for the treatment of acute intestinal infections of an established and unknown etiology, including viral diarrhea, for the prevention and treatment of dysbacteriosis of various etiologies, including those accompanied by suppression of the immune systems, as well as in the complex therapy of food allergies.

Sea Doo jet skis. Review of Sea Doo jet skis. Main advantages.

Sea Doo jet skis. Review of Sea Doo jet skis. Main advantages.

One of the most famous



manufacturers of jet skis – Canadian company BRP. Jet skis from this manufacturer are produced under the Sea Doo brand and are considered the ancestors of all aquabikes. BRP’s first jet ski was created in 1968.

On the Russian market, Sea-Doo is represented very widely, at the moment there are as many as 14 models available to choose from. All Sea-Doo jets are powered by 4-stroke, 3-cylinder Rotax engines up to 1.5 HP. BRP divides all its jet skis into four classes. Each class has different features and is designed for specific purposes.

The most widely represented series includes jet skis under the conditional name «for relax». The well-known GTI and GTS series belong to this type of jet ski. Jet skis of this series are equipped with three places, they have capacious luggage racks. The volume of their motors – up to 155 horsepower.

The market value of models in this series varies from 459 thousand rubles for the GTS 4-TEC 130 LTD to 629 thousand rubles for the GTI 4-TEC 155 LTD model.

Models GTX 4-TEC Wakeboard 155 and GTX 4-TEC Wakeboard 215 represent a series of high-speed sports jets. By the name of this series, you can easily determine their main purpose. – transport water skiers and wakeboarders. Prices for models of this series are as follows: – GTX 4-TEC Wakeboard 155 costs 619 thousand rubles, and GTX 4-TEC Wakeboard 215 – 670 thousand rubles. The class of so-called «super-powerful» jet skis. This series consists of five aquabikes.

Four models are labeled RXT (260 horsepower) and one is GTR (215 horsepower). The second differs from other models in that it has a modified V-shaped profile made of reinforced fiberglass. All jets of this series are three-seater, except for the two-seater RXT-X 260. Trunk capacity of the RXT series is 2–3 times inferior to the GTR series.

Prices for models start at 659 thousand rubles. for GTR 215 and end at 929 thousand rubles. for RXT-X aS 260 RS.

And the latest class of Sea-Doo jet skis – exclusive. According to BRP employees, the word «exclusive» does not yet indicate an exorbitant price. The most affordable jet ski in this class — GTX S 4-TEC 15 is sold at a price of 700 thousand rubles.

Finishing and equipment are exclusive in it. The most expensive of Sea-Doo’s wide range of products is the GTX 4-TEC LTD iS 260. It is made for enhanced comfort over long distances.

Its dashboard contains as many as 34 functions such as – altimeter, depth gauge, time / distance to drain the tank. And its independent suspension is adjustable depending on the load of the vehicle and the waves on the water surface..

All about mixing consoles.

All about mixing consoles.

This is a device, the main task of which is the summation of several sound signals into one. But modern mixing consoles, in addition to this function, perform a number of others:

• signal correction (equalization, compression, special effects); • routing (the console is the heart of any concert venue or studio, from which wires diverge to other equipment); • amplification (such a mixer can be connected directly to acoustic systems); • recording to a computer or external media.

How to make sense of all this diversity?

Types of mixing consoles.

All mixing consoles are conventionally divided into DJ, concert, studio, radio and others. Everyone has their own specifics, and this most important factor cannot be ignored..

DJ consoles usually have fewer channels than live ones, but they have special features:

• fader between a pair of stereo sources, allowing one movement to mix them; • special equalizer, literally killing frequencies; • an effects processor with a looper or a special input with a tone-corrector for connecting turntables (or, as they are also called, turntables).

Pictured is a DJ mixing console.

These functions will most likely be useless for concert or studio activities, but you will not be able to hold a disco with another mixing console..

DJ controllers have become very popular now. These are DJ mixing consoles combined with a multichannel (usually two stereo pairs) sound card and controlled by a special program from a computer. If the sound source is only a computer, then there is no point in buying a regular DJ mixer.

A more reasonable purchase would be a DJ controller.

Photo – DJ controller.

Concert consoles pay special attention to reliability and convenience of operational work with frequent trips. Such a console should have a developed architecture – the ability to connect a variety of additional equipment and route the signal to various sound reinforcement zones. Concert consoles include zone and monitor consoles, as well as various splitters that solve narrow problems during large concerts.

In the photo – a concert mixing console.

Modern studio consoles value, above all, the level of sound quality and the ability to save settings. Nowadays, digital consoles are widely used, allowing one touch to return to an unfinished track and continue mixing it at any time. In studio consoles, attention is often paid to such subjective parameters as convergence and listenability, which characterize the balance of instruments in the production of a finished recording..

Pictured is a modern studio mixing console.

Broadcasting consoles are in a sense similar to DJ consoles (it’s not for nothing that people in the on-air studio call themselves DJs more often than presenters). However, these consoles have some additional functions, for example, the ability to communicate off-air with the studio or listeners who are calling on the phone, start the soundtrack from the fader channel, and special dynamics processing with controlled compressors. All this is absolutely unnecessary in the studio or on the concert stage..

Pictured is a broadcasting mixing console.

Depending on the number of channels, mixing consoles are divided into portable, portable and stationary..

Portable consoles are compact devices, as a rule, of a budget class, performing the minimum tasks assigned to them. They are usually used where many channels are not needed and there is no need to connect musical instruments. A feature of portable consoles is the use of circular potentiometers, thanks to which the devices are light and small, they are easy to carry, and they do not take up much space in a home studio..

Pictured is a portable mixing console.

By the way, you can watch our video about the 5 most interesting representatives of these mixing consoles on the channel:

Portable mixing consoles are semi-professional and professional models that are used for various events: concerts, studio recordings, etc. Such devices have more channels than portable models. In live performance, active mixers with a built-in power amplifier are often used.

They have everything you need for quality mixing and recording..

Photo – portable mixing console.

Stationary mixing consoles are professional devices with a large number of channels. They are used for large concerts and in professional recording studios. Increasingly, there are digital mixing consoles that allow multichannel sound recording to a computer, have the broadest sound processing capabilities, are able to memorize all the settings of a particular studio project and greatly facilitate the work of sound engineers..

In the photo – a stationary mixing console.

Main characteristics of mixing consoles.

Number of channels: what you need to know about it?

If the console is called 10-channel, this does not mean that it has 10 microphone inputs. A stereo input (for example, for connecting a stereo player) is two channels. There is also an additional, unregulated TAPE (CD) IN input, which feeds the line-level stereo signal directly to the master bus: it also needs two channels.

Thus, a 10-channel mixing console can have 4 mono microphone inputs, 2 stereo inputs for connecting stereo sources and an additional input for connecting a turntable to the master section..

Channel types.

As we noted above, mixing consoles have mic and line inputs. They can be balanced or unbalanced. Most consoles have balanced inputs, which contributes to greater noise immunity and, as a result, noise reduction.

Therefore, you should use balanced (they are also called balanced), mainly XLR connectors.

Mixing console interface.

All signal control in the mixing console can be divided into channel-by-channel and general.

Each channel of a mixing console usually contains:

Line In 1/4 “TRS (fat jack).

Very often, the microphone and line inputs are performed on budget consoles to save space on the so-called COMBO connector. Both XLR and Jack can be connected to it.

Insert, which directs the signal to an external processing device (most often a compressor) and receives it back from this device.

GAIN control that allows you to adjust the mixer input channel to work with any source.

Equalizers: Budget models have a two- or three-band equalizer. More expensive and professional models usually imply parametric adjustment, which changes not only the level of each adjustable frequency, but also the frequency itself. This option is convenient for concert and studio work, as it allows you to make a more accurate and deep correction of the signal in the midrange..

Send, which makes it possible to mix the processed signal from an external processing device into the channel signal.

Pan control that controls the level of the signal that will be routed to the common left and right channels.

Switching, in which the activity and signal route are determined using the buttons.

Volume control. On budget models, it is made on circular potentiometers, on professional consoles on vertical faders: the longer it is, the more accurately you can set the signal level.

General management includes subgroups that allow you to combine the selected channels for further management. The general section contains a headphone output, switching (AUX sends and returns, monitor outputs), built-in DSP-processors. The indicator of levels is also required.

Professional consoles have a built-in microphone for negotiations with a sound engineer, a special output for connecting a backlight, and much more..

Do you need a mixer in a home studio?

Now that we know almost everything about mixing consoles, we will answer the main question that we are asked: “I have a home studio. Does it make sense to buy a mixer for it? “.

The minimum home studio usually includes:

– microphone; – sound card; – headphones; – studio monitors; – MIDI keyboard; – commutation and racks.

Do you need a remote control in this case? Our answer? NOT.

You don’t need a mixing console for recording: not only will it not improve the recording, but it will most likely worsen it. Of course, if you don’t use your studio to take “clear” pictures against its background 🙂 🙂

Why do we think so?

1. Modern sound cards contain mic preamps of quality that are usually superior to those of consoles. The preamplifier costs no less than $ 100, the 10-channel remote uses at least 4 microphone preamps, and there are also stereo inputs. Nevertheless, the price of the remote control does not rise above $ 400.

A completely normal 10-channel console can be purchased for $ 120-150 (it will even come with an effects processor, which also costs more than $ 100 separately). Logically, what is the choice under such circumstances? in favor of audio interfaces and separate preamplifiers.

By the way, cards can have up to 16 (and even up to 32) input channels and allow you to record any signal source.

2. When recording from a microphone, it is not recommended to use EQ or other dynamics processing such as a compressor. You can mess up your recording, and on final mixing, the error will not be corrected..

3. Mixing in 99% of cases will take place in a sequencer (special program). The remaining 1% comes from expensive analog mixing consoles. The cost of such remotes now starts at 500,000 rubles, they require a lot of expensive additional processing, and this is not at all home recording.

Mixing on an 8-channel remote control for 10,000 rubles and getting an excellent result, alas, is impossible.

4. Many people are considering mixing consoles with USB onboard. Unfortunately, for studio recording, these consoles are completely useless. They digitize only the master section, and you cannot write channel by channel with them. In other words, you will not be able to listen to a minus phonogram through such a remote control and write vocals on a separate track: a ready-made mix will be recorded.

But for small performances this is a godsend: you do not need a sound card, you connect directly to a laptop and have a sound that is many times better than through the built-in sound card. The more power, the more noticeable the difference will be. But all of the above does not put an end to the use of mixing consoles in a home studio for monitoring..

The remote can be useful because:

– You will have an additional headphone output (one more is mandatory on the sound card).

Note that if you need to connect more than two pairs of headphones, there are dedicated headphone preamps. Using them is more practical..

– You can connect through the remote control not one, but two pairs of monitors.

For serious studios, there are dedicated monitor mixers. They allow you to route the signal with great flexibility.

In the photo – a special



monitor mixing console.

– It will be possible to use equalization in the monitoring mode and evaluate the need for frequency correction in real time.

– Finally, you can calmly rehearse with your friends before recording, without thinking how to stick it all into your sound card.

Being together: 12 books on harmony in pairs.

Being together: 12 books on harmony as a couple.

Make friends, show tenderness and spend time together, be able to admire each other and share experiences … The secrets of a strong relationship in a couple seem simple, but in reality they are available only to those who are open and tuned in to dialogue with a partner. 12 books to help you sort out your feelings and establish dialogue, in a selection of Psychologies.

1. “Map of love”

The book is based on the famous study of relationships between partners in marriage, conducted by American family therapist John Gottman in 1999..

Volunteers, married couples of different ages and experience of relationships, were tested by psychologists under the supervision of video cameras and microphones.

The analysis of their facial expressions, gestures, intonations and feelings during the discussion of controversial topics allowed John Gottman to formulate the basic principles of a happy marriage. These laws of harmonious family relationships are described in the book.

Author: Dzhon Gottman Publisher: Eksmo, 2011.

2. “WE. The deeper aspects of romantic love “

Romantic love is both a state of being in love and a psychological phenomenon, a time when, in communication with another person, we learn the meaning of our life. But also expectations and disappointments in them.

American Jungian psychologist Robert Johnson explores the nature of love using the method of depth psychology – the analysis of myth (in this case, the myth of Tristan and Isolde) as an expression of our symbolic unconscious.

The book reveals the origins of romantic illusions and the authenticity of mature love.

Author: Robert Johnson Publisher: Kogito-tsentr, 2009.

3. “You and your family. Personal Growth Guide “

“Family life is somewhat like an iceberg. The fate of a sailor depends on the knowledge that an iceberg has an underwater part, and the fate of a family depends on understanding the feelings, needs and structures that lie behind its daily life, ”says the founder of family counseling, American psychotherapist Virginia Satir.

She wrote this book for men and women who have difficulties in relationships with each other. Having learned how the family structure functions, according to what laws it develops, one can understand what is happening to our couple in everyday life, and “make your family happy on your own.”.

Author: Virginia Satir Publisher: Institute of General Humanitarian Research, 2015.

4. “Love, love, love: about different ways to improve relationships, about acceptance of others and yourself”

“Acceptance” is the key word around which the storytelling of the book by Liz Burbo, the Canadian psychologist, founder of the school of spiritual development “Listen to Your Body”, is built. It’s about learning to accept yourself, your loved ones for who we are.

The book is a



detailed transcript of the psychologist’s dialogues with his clients – a married couple. Asking questions and analyzing the answers of partners, Liz Burbo examines each situation in detail.

This is an exciting reading, because from chapter to chapter (from meeting to meeting) we observe how each of the participants in the dialogue changes, how he learns to accept his relatives and external circumstances. As a result, relationships within the family become different, more trusting and close..

Author: Liz Burbo Publisher: Sofiya, 2013.

5. “Why do men want sex and women love”

Talking about the priorities, needs, methods of communication and the structure of the brain of representatives of each gender, psychologists Allan and Barbara Pease confirm some myths, debunk others and provide a scientific explanation for the third..

It turns out that men cannot help lying to their wives, that 80% of couples where one of the partners snores break up and that women are terribly excited by the husband’s proposal to vacuum or wash the dishes..

After devoting many pages to a convincing presentation of the insurmountable differences between masculine and feminine nature, the Pease couple finally soften the blow: “Humans differ from other animals in that they are able to define and change their behavior, making a conscious choice.” To help us with this, this book was written..

Authors: Allan Piz, Barbara Piz Publisher: Eksmo, 2014.

6. “The marriage is dead – long live the marriage!”

A Swiss psychotherapist ponders what is the precondition for a happy marriage today. He carefully examines the history of the institution of marriage and comes to the conclusion that the myth of a happy marriage was formed under the influence of the image of the Holy Family..

But it is nothing more than a myth: according to the author, “the so-called happy marriage has definitely lost.” Nevertheless, the author does not call for widespread divorces and families consisting of one person, giving us the opportunity to choose: “marriage is the path of happiness for many, but it can also be different.”.

Author: Adolf Guggenbyul-Kreig Publisher: Kogito-Tsentr, 2007.

7. “How to live in pairs and stay free”

Is it possible to live with another person and at the same time avoid conflicts? Do I need to sacrifice myself? Do we lose ourselves in a love union or, conversely, do we find?

Is it necessary to defend your position?

American psychotherapists Tina Tessina and Riley K. Smith argue that the freer each partner feels, the happier and more durable their union. The book describes behavioral strategies that allow you to peacefully overcome relationship problems, love each other and at the same time remain free people..

Authors: Tina Tessina, Railey K. Smith Publisher: Feniks, 2005.

8. “Honey, we need to talk about our relationship.”

Loss of trust and loss of emotional connection between a man and a woman is the main reason for many divorces. American psychologists Patricia Love and Stephen Stosny, each of whom has been advising married couples for more than a quarter of a century, argue that in most cases it is possible to overcome the alienation that has arisen..

In the book, they analyze the “dialogues of two deaf”, explaining in detail why it is so difficult for us to “hear” each other, what may be the implications of certain accusations of inattention and insensitivity. Step by step, sorting out mutual claims, the authors explain how you can establish an emotional connection with your partner in times of crisis, when the marriage is about to collapse..

Authors: Patricia Love, Steven Stosny Publisher: Sofiya, 2008.

9. “Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love”

Anthropologist Helen Fisher analyzed a lot of information about lovers: she made tomograms of their brains and conducted in-depth questionnaires; measured the level of dopamine and other chemicals that make us feel aroused and pleased.

Fischer shares the results of his many years of research and explains what happens to us at the biochemical level when we fall in love, experience passion, love or suffer from unrequited love..

Author: Helen Fisher Publisher: Alpina non-fiction, 2013.

10. “Secrets of Happy Families. Male look “

What does “male” look mean? A minimum of psychology, a maximum of technology, in our particular case. We will not find advice like “Listen to Yourself” in this book.

But we will find various instructions “How to make it so that …” – the children learned how to manage their pocket money, the quarrel turned not into a scandal, but into a step towards mutual understanding, and so on.

Also, notes Bruce Feiler, columnist for the New York Times and father of the family, it’s important to recreate your family’s history. A common story is not only a reason to spend time together, listening and creating fascinating stories, it is also a sense of your place and your importance, your responsibility.

But the author is not only busy with children. Marital intimacy – in it, he also reveals something completely unexpected: for sex, “intimacy is the last thing a couple needs. Married people need a sense of isolation. Too close relationships kill desire “.